Haloragaceae family


Plant Group




Herbs, usually somewhat rough with bristles or tubercles, flowers minute, red or green, with deeply concave, boat-shaped petals.

Image of Gonocarpus tetragynus Image: Mary Ellis



Named from Greek gonia meaning corner or angle and karpos meaning fruit because the fruit has 8 edges. Raspy feel along stems.


Annual or perennial herbs with many leaves, water milfoils are aquatic for part of the year. The plants alter their appearance as water dries up. The submerged leaves are very similar in those species with pinnate foliage. Emergent leaves are entire, toothed or lobed. Single sessile flowers occur in the upper axils of emergent leaves, male flowers above female. Petals are absent on female flowers.